Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoy, the organizer and leader of the "Traveling Exhibition School"
Kramskoy (Иван Николаевич Крамской) was the organizer and leader of the "Traveling Exhibition School" (referred to as "Traveling School"), and his artistic insights had a considerable influence on Russian painters at that time.
Kramskoy's portraits are a true and profound reflection of social change, as the critics put it: "It could constitute a gallery of outstanding artists and prominent activists engaged in democratic progress on the eve of the October Revolution, not only The glory of Kramskoy is also the glory of portraiture."
In the middle of the 19th century, with the disintegration of the serf system, Russia ushered in the prosperity of culture and art. After Bryulov and Ivanov died one after another, after the efforts of a whole generation, in the 1970s, with the Russian criticism of realism The rise of the literary movement led to the emergence of the famous realism school—the traveling exhibition school.
Its founder was Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoy.
Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoy was born in 1837 in a poor family in the city of Ostlogozhsk, Vronnesh province in central Russia. In his childhood, he worked as a footman and a clerk in the village. In 1853, he repaired the baseplate with a mobile photographer. He came to Petersburg by chance and was admitted to the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Petersburg in 1857.
On November 9, 1863, the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Petersburg was holding a grand ceremony to announce the title of the Grand Gold Prize Painting Competition. The members of the Academy Committee, all wearing medal ribbons, sat solemnly in dark green velvet. long table. The elderly Duke Gagarin read out the decision of the Academy Committee in a solemn tone: "The painting competition for the Grand Gold Medal to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Academy has decided to take the title "Banquet at the Palace of Vargara": Sitting on the Throne God surrounded by gods and heroes, raven perched on his shoulders... wolves chasing the moon, running through the arches of the Valgara Palace..." At this moment, the 14 who stood opposite silently listened to the decision One of the students was a thin, pale young man with a sparse beard. He walked up to the dean and said solemnly: "We have asked the college many times for permission to create pictures according to our own wishes, but, The committee gave no will to satisfy, so we wished to free ourselves from this bondage and give us the diploma of free artist". The young man who stood up to speak was Kramskoy. The College Board ultimately rejected the demands of 14 students and announced their expulsion.
In 1865, with Kramskoy as the core, these 14 impoverished young students formed an artist cooperative factory, and advertised to undertake various art work. The house they rented in Andmiradesky became a pleasant, communal collective. Every summer, they leave the capital and go to the people to sketch and paint; every winter, they engage in new creations and discuss topics that everyone cares about enthusiastically. As Durinov's poem says: "In the fireplace of the house nothing was lit, but the flame of everyone's love for Russian painting was burning...".
In the winter of 1868, Mashayedov, a painter from Moscow, proposed the establishment of the "Russian Artists' Touring Exhibition Association". To be able to appreciate their works, thus breaking the monopoly of art by the royal family and aristocracy, and swaying commentary. Others actively advocating this proposal in Moscow are famous painters such as Berov, Plyanyshnikov, Savrasov and Makovsky, most of whom are teachers of the Moscow School of Painting. This initiative received a warm response from the Debao Artists Cooperative Factory.
In the autumn of 1870, they jointly agreed on the statutes of the traveling exhibition association, declaring their purpose: "The purpose of establishing the traveling exhibition association is to make it possible for the inhabitants of the provinces to recognize the achievements of Russian art".
On November 21, 1871, the first exhibition of paintings organized by the Society opened in Petersburg. The works that participated in this exhibition included Berov's "The Hunter's Rest", Savrasov's "Flying Rook", Shishkin's "Morning in the Pine Forest" and other 46 pieces, which were warmly praised by the audience.
In the spring of 1872, the exhibition opened in Moscow, and then traveled to places such as Kyiv and Kharkov, and was warmly welcomed everywhere. The famous critic Stasov and the famous collector Trejakov became the strong backing of this school of painting, giving strong support to young painters both spiritually and materially. As the writer Saltykov-Shedrin said: "From now on, Russian works of art enclosed in Petersburg or in the Academy of Fine Arts will be something that everyone can enjoy." Kramskoy's paintings His reputation gradually became famous all over the country, his life was improved, and he often went out of the upper class society. In order to be rich, he continued to paint all day long, and even before he reached 50, he was old and sickly.
In 1887, when Kramskoy was painting a portrait of a doctor named Rauchpus, he collapsed in front of the painting and died.
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