Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780-1867) was born in Montauban, France. Representative works include "The Grand Palace Maid" and "Turkish Bath".
Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres was a neoclassical painter, aesthetic theorist and educator. Ingres emphasized that painting must pay attention to bones, and muscles are far behind. He believes that excessively precise drawing of muscles will become the biggest obstacle to the innocence of modeling, and even cause the waste of unique ideas to make the work mediocre. This is an important aesthetic theory that was never thought of by the predecessors. In 1814, he created "The Grand Palace Maid" at the invitation of Queen Caroline, which is the best proof of this theory.
Ingres advocates nature, and the nude creations that represent his highest achievements are often not sculpted, and are a combination of the refinement of natural images and the rationality of classical modeling. The nude women in his works have no thoughts of "Turkish Bath", no belief in "Beauty of the Harem", and no elements of any era in "Venus", which is actually a portrait of his wife), and is completely the artist's pure artistic creation. "The Fountain" is his most famous work. He started it as a study in Italy in 1820 and finished it in Paris in 1856. It is said that the original name was "Venus", but after decades of worldly wandering, the painter, Modified the little angel at the girl's feet, and changed the hair to pour the water bottle, making it a masterpiece with classical symbolic meaning. Perhaps Angel is pinning his infinite nostalgia on youth—the girl's vibrant body is just like the budding daisy at her feet, exuding long-lasting charm, giving people tranquil thoughts and endless timelessness. The girl is the child of the painter's age, and her American capital surpasses that of all her sisters, concentrating their beauty in one. The beauty of Angel's art form is successful. The nudes in his paintings reject all unnatural elements, so their beauty is a model that can be worshipped in any era.
On August 29, 1780, he was born in Montauban. His father, Joseph Ingres, was an academician of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Montauban, and his mother was the daughter of a palace wigger, who received good artistic edification since childhood. In 1786, Ingres was sent to a mission school by his father to study, and then transferred to the Toulouse Academy to study fine arts. In 1797, he went to Paris and entered the studio of the neoclassical master Jacques-Louis David, with outstanding achievements. Two years later, he was admitted to the École des Beaux-Arts. In 1801, he won the Grand Prix of Rome for his painting "Agamemnon's Messenger".
Ingres was forced to stay in Paris as Napoleon's wars prevented the French treasury from paying for his scholarship in Rome. He distinguished himself as a portraitist and received his first official commission in 1804. In 1805, he met the Judge Riviere family in Paris and created "Portrait of Madame Riviere". Two years later, the portrait was exhibited in the official Salon exhibition, which attracted public attention.
In 1806, Ingres set off for Italy. In 1810 he remained in Italy and became a portrait painter of Napoleonic officials and dignitaries. In 1811, invited to participate in the renovation of the Quirinal Palace, Ingres created Romulus, the Conqueror of Akron and The Dream of Ossien. This period of relative prosperity came to an abrupt end in 1815 with the fall of Napoleon's empire and the withdrawal of France from Rome. Ingres despaired of the work and resorted to tourists creating small portraits. The features of these paintings show Ingres' almost uncanny control of the line, revealing the model's personality through the poses and gestures of the figures, and the depiction is precise and impressive. Although these portraits became Ingres' most admired series, he himself dismissed them as a hodgepodge.
In 1814, Ingres created "The Grand Palais" and exhibited it at the Salon of 1819, the painting was strongly attacked by critics. They mocked Ingres for weakening the shape and distorting the female nude. One critic once joked that the woman in the painting has too many three vertebrae, and that her wildly expanding hips and rubbery, boneless right arm constitute a presence that can only exist in the artist's erotic imagination.
In 1820, Ingres moved to Florence, adopted a more traditional classical style and accepted a large number of commissions for portraiture. In 1824, the "Vow of Louis XIII" was exhibited in France, which was officially praised, which also made him from the most criticized artist in France to the most famous artist. In 1825 he opened his own school in Paris. In 1825, he was elected a member of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. From 1835 to 1841, he was President of the French Academy in Rome, during which time he was mainly responsible for administration and teaching. During these six years, only three major works were completed. In 1841, Ingres returned to Paris and continued to create a number of great works. In 1856, the birth of the most outstanding work "Fountain", which symbolizes the "high and solemn beauty", marked the glorious peak of Ingres art.
In 1863, the city of Montauban presented him with a golden laurel. He died of pneumonia in Paris on January 14, 1867, at the age of 87.
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