Raphael Santi, the youngest of the "Three Heroes of the Post-Renaissance"
Raphael Santi (Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, full name Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, March 28, 1483 or April 6 - April 6, 1520), often known as Raphael (Raphael), a famous Italian painter , is also the youngest of the "Three Heroes of the Post-Renaissance", representing the pinnacle of what an artist in the Renaissance could achieve in his career of ideal beauty.
His temperament is peaceful and refined, and he has created a large number of Madonna statues, his works fully embody tranquility, harmony, harmony, symmetry, and perfect and tranquil order.
Raphael was influenced by his father's soft and delicate painting style and the Urbino school since he was a child, and embarked on an original road. Before the age of 25, a large number of statues of the Madonna were created, and for this reason, he became famous all over the world. The Madonnas in his works are neither the bitter images of the past, nor are they different from the bohemian Madonnas of the Venetian school. They are the images of serene and virtuous women, just like mothers in the world, full of warm humanity. In 1504 he came to Florence and learned Leonardo da Vinci's technique known as "smoke", forming a new style.
Raphael's work exemplifies tranquility, harmony, harmony, symmetry, and a perfect and serene order - in this sense, his work can indeed be called "the pinnacle of the humanist and renaissance world" (Giuliano Briganti, 1988).
Appreciation of works
From 1504 to 1508, Raphael's most famous paintings of the Virgin include: "The Virgin of the Grand Duke", "The Virgin in the Grass", "The Virgin in the Garden" and so on. "The Virgin in the Garden" is the best. Although it is a religious painting, it is full of happiness and beauty in the world. The Virgin sits sideways, watching over two playful children, one is Jesus and the other is John the Baptist. The lines of the picture are soft, the distant view is beautiful, and the close-up view is full of flowers; there are a few light white clouds in the sky, reflecting the soft shimmer. Love and scenery are rich in poetry.
From 1508 to 1520, Raphael's artistic creativity reached its peak. His first Vatican hall was painted according to the poems of the poet de la Hinjadur. Although these frescoes such as "The Controversy of the Sacraments", "School of Athens", "Parnassus Mountain" and "Three Virtues" are designed for Served by the Holy See, but Raphael deftly made it embody his own humanist ideas. Raphael prepared four frescoes for the second room of the Vatican Palace, based on the poems of the poet della Eliodoro: "Heliodoro is expelled from the temple", "Mass at Polsina" and "Peter rescued" Prison" and "The Pope Meets Attila", the theme of this group of paintings is to celebrate the power of the Pope and his victory. Among them, Peter was rescued from prison is the most exciting. The artist described the wit, bravery and nervous and thrilling details of the angel's rescue of Peter from prison with vivid plots and superb skills, which was praised by people. Raphael created the mural "Fire Alarm in the Palace of Borch" for the third hall of the Vatican Palace. It was originally to promote the miracle of Pope Leo IV's prayer to eliminate the fire, but here it sang the praise of the Italian working people relying on their own strength beat the fire. Raphael's most famous portraits during this period are "Pope Julius II" and "Pope Leo X". Julius II is portrayed as a strong-willed and violent image, while Leo X Shi is portrayed as a sinister and cunning careerist. In addition, such as "Portrait of Cardinal Torifolizio", "Portrait of Cascilion", "Portrait of Giovanna Darragona", etc., are the most outstanding works of Raphael in this period, and he is good at expressing the characteristics of characters. and demeanor. However, the artist's best skill is still good at expressing female beauty, such as "Johanna of Aragon" and "Dona Villata". The former uses fuchsia velvet and dark brown tones to express the noble status of the characters, while the latter uses golden tones to describe the tenderness of the muscles and the transparency of the veil.
The most famous statues of the Virgin in the later period of Raphael are "The Virgin in the Chair" and "The Sistine Virgin". In "The Madonna in the Chair", Raphael uses the common family joy scenes in the world to describe the deep family joy of mother and child love between the Virgin and Child. In "The Sistine Madonna", Raphael adopted a series of new expressive techniques in an anti-traditional way, allowing people to watch the Virgin from the point of view of movement and the feeling of movement. With a sense of movement and melody-like movement, this masterpiece is highly regarded as comparable to the Mona Lisa, and is a rare treasure in the treasure house of human culture and art.
In his short life, Raphael created more than 300 works. His art is regarded as "classical art" by later generations, and his works are regarded as "creative models" and enjoy a high reputation.
Raphael's paintings are dominated by the picture of the Virgin, so people are accustomed to associate Raphael with the delicate and supple image of the Virgin . He enjoys the greatest honor as a court painter of the Pope Vatican. He is also known as the three masters of the Italian Renaissance along with Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. For centuries, he has been praised as the greatest genius painter. From the looks of it, Raphael was an unquestioning, unstrained poet, painter, and a superhuman talent with agility. He visualized the artistic ideals of Renaissance Neoplatonism as if it were easy to visualize.
Raphael's great contribution to Italian Renaissance art in the history of art is a historical fact that no one can deny. Although Raphael is not as good as Da Vinci in terms of artistic achievement in terms of intelligence and creativity; in terms of style and style, he is not as good as Michelangelo; in terms of color and sensibility, he is not as good as the Venetian school, but he can give full play to His comprehensive artistic genius allowed him to create some of the most brilliant artistic achievements of the Renaissance. Raphael absorbed the essence of the painting styles and techniques of the previous generation of art masters very early, and then unified these essences in his actual creation, and focused on the performance of the ideal beauty of the world, which specifically described the Renaissance era. Art reconciles the spirit, making him a gentle and mellow humanist art master. This harmony of idealized beauty is the spirit of Raphael's art.
Raphael embraced the artistic ideal of Neoplatonism, and with his refined painting skills, brought the humanism of the Renaissance to the extreme. Although there are not many works left by him, the brilliance of his works will have far-reaching influence on later generations. Raphael extracted nutrients from the techniques of the previous generation of art masters, and transformed into a soft, round and full harmonious beauty. His Madonna series works are rare masterpieces in the history of art. With a secular approach, Raphael portrays traditional religious themes as ideal beauty in real life, praises the linear brilliance of ordinary human beings, and is full of happiness and joy, which further reflects his humanistic thought. Raphael's art, known as "classicism" by later generations, not only inspired the baroque style, but also had a profound influence on the classical school in 17th century France. From the perspective of art history, Raphael is not only a painter of the Renaissance, but also opened a new window of creative methods for later generations.
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